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Habituation vs. Desensitization: A Compassionate Approach to Equine Training

Updated: Jun 12

Cultivating Trust and Harmony: A Compassionate Approach to Horse Training
As a horse trainer who worked primarily with last chance horses and wild mustangs, I used to rely on desensitizing methods to train my horses because. First and foremost because that’s that's what I was taught by a lot of “guru’s”, and I continued using them because they produced visible results. However, what I didn't realize was the invisible damage I was causing—creating stress and fostering learned helplessness in the horses I loved so much. When I finally understood the impact of these methods, I was overwhelmed with guilt and heartache. It was a tough realization to accept that my actions, even with the best intentions, were harming the very creatures I wanted to help.
This journey of discovery was deeply personal and emotional for me. I had to confront the mistakes I made and the unintended consequences of my training methods. But I believe that when we know better, we do better. Instead of being paralyzed by guilt, I chose to learn and grow. I immersed myself in new, more compassionate training techniques that prioritize the horse's well-being.

Now, it is my mission to share what I’ve learned with fellow equestrians who are open to doing better by their horses. I want to reach those who, like me, care deeply for their equine partners and are willing to embrace new approaches for their benefit. Together, we can create a more compassionate and effective way to train and care for our beloved horses, fostering trust, confidence, and genuine connection. My hope is that by educating others, we can collectively improve the lives of the horses we cherish, ensuring they lead happier, healthier, and more fulfilling lives.

Training horses is both an art and a science, requiring patience, empathy, and a deep understanding of equine psychology. Desensitization and habituation are both methods thought help horses overcome fear and anxiety. While these terms are often used interchangeably, they represent distinct approaches with different outcomes for the horse's well-being and performance. In this blog post, we'll explore the concept of habituation and why it is a more compassionate and effective method compared to desensitization.

The Risks of Desensitization

Desensitization, while often used interchangeably with habituation, involves exposing a horse to a stimulus until it no longer reacts strongly. The intent is to diminish the horse's response to the stimulus, but this method carries significant risks. Desensitization can lead to a horse becoming overly dull or unresponsive, not just to the specific stimulus but also to other important cues.
One particularly extreme form of desensitization is flooding, which involves overwhelming the horse with a stimulus until it ceases to react. Flooding forces the horse to confront its fears head-on without an opportunity to retreat or escape, leading to intense stress. While this method can sometimes yield quick results, the potential damage to the horse's physical and psychological well-being is significant.

Potential Downsides of Desensitization and Flooding:

Loss of Sensitivity: The horse may become less responsive to important cues, affecting overall performance and communication with the rider. Overexposure to a stimulus can dull the horse's natural responses, making it difficult to engage in subtle communication during training and riding.

Increased Stress: If the process is rushed or the stimulus is too intense, the horse may experience heightened anxiety and fear. Flooding, in particular, can lead to overwhelming stress, causing the horse to shut down emotionally. This high level of stress can trigger a cascade of negative health effects, including compromised gut health. Horses under constant stress may develop ulcers, colic, and other gastrointestinal issues.

Diminished Trust: Pushing a horse too hard can damage the bond of trust between horse and handler, making future training more difficult. When a horse is flooded with a stimulus, it learns to associate the handler with fear and discomfort rather than safety and support. This breach of trust can take a long time to repair, if it can be repaired at all.

Internalized Stress and Health Issues: Chronic stress from desensitization and flooding can lead to internalized stress, which affects the horse's nervous system. Prolonged exposure to stress hormones can weaken the immune system, making the horse more susceptible to illnesses. The horse's nervous system can become dysregulated, leading to issues such as anxiety, hypervigilance, and difficulty calming down even in safe environments.

Understanding Habituation

Habituation is a gradual process of helping a horse become accustomed to a specific stimulus through repeated, controlled exposure. The goal is to enhance the horse's confidence and competence without causing stress or fear. This method is about creating positive associations and allowing the horse to adjust at its own pace.

Gradual and Positive Exposure: Start with low-intensity versions of the stimulus and slowly increase the intensity as the horse becomes more comfortable. Pair this exposure with positive experiences, such as feeding times, simulating mutual grooming, deep breathing, and playful activities, to create a positive association. Allow the horse to set the pace, demonstrating patience and empathy, as rushing the process can lead to increased fear and anxiety. Maintain consistency with regular, predictable exposure to help the horse understand that the stimulus is a normal part of its environment.

Practical Application


Consider a scenario where a horse is terrified of clippers. Using flooding, the trainer might restrain the horse and continuously run the clippers near it until the horse stops reacting. Initially, the horse may panic, rear, or try to escape. Over time, it may stand still, not because it is no longer afraid, but because it has shut down emotionally—a state known as "learned helplessness." The horse has learned that no matter what it does, it cannot escape the situation, leading to a profound sense of defeat and stress.
The stress from such an experience can linger long after the session, affecting the horse's overall health and behavior. The horse might develop nervous habits, such as cribbing or weaving, as a way to cope with its anxiety. Additionally, the ongoing stress can disrupt its digestive system, leading to chronic conditions like gastric ulcers.


Now consider the same scenario using habituation. The trainer approaches the situation with patience and empathy, allowing the horse to gradually become accustomed to the clippers in a controlled and positive manner.

Step 1: Introduction at a Distance
The trainer begins by simply showing the horse the clippers from a distance while engaging in a familiar and positive activity, such as feeding or mutual grooming. The clippers are not turned on, and the horse is allowed to observe them without any pressure. The goal is to create a non-threatening association with the clippers.

Step 2: Incremental Exposure
Once the horse appears comfortable with the sight of the clippers, the trainer moves a step closer over several sessions, always monitoring the horse's body language for signs of stress. The clippers remain off, and the horse continues to receive positive reinforcement, such as deep co-regulating breaths or soothing words, to build a positive connection.

Step 3: Introducing Sound
The next phase involves turning the clippers on but keeping them at a distance. The horse is allowed to hear the sound from afar while still engaged in positive activities. Gradually, the clippers are brought closer, but only as the horse shows signs of comfort and curiosity, rather than fear.

Step 4: Closer Interaction
With the horse now comfortable with the sound and sight of the clippers, the trainer brings the clippers closer to the horse's body, but without touching it. The horse is encouraged to investigate the clippers at its own pace, with plenty of positive reinforcement. The trainer may gently touch the horse with the turned-off clippers, rewarding calm behavior.

Step 5: Direct Contact
Finally, the clippers are gently brought into direct contact with the horse, initially with the clippers off and then, over time, with the clippers on. Each step is gradual, ensuring the horse remains calm and relaxed. The trainer continues to provide positive reinforcement, making the experience as pleasant as possible.


Through this method of habituation, the horse gradually becomes accustomed to the clippers without experiencing overwhelming fear or stress. The horse learns to associate the clippers with positive experiences and trust in the trainer, rather than viewing them as a threat.

Unlike desensitizing, which can lead to learned helplessness and chronic stress, habituation helps build the horse's confidence and trust. While habituation does take more time initially, the investment pays off in the long run. The gradual and positive exposure ensures that the horse remains engaged and responsive, reducing the risk of nervous habits and health issues such as gastric ulcers. By going slow in the beginning, we lay a solid foundation that allows us to progress more quickly and effectively later on. Once trust and curiosity neuropathways are formed in the brain, they translate to other areas, making the horse more adaptable and willing to learn.

Habituation also fosters a stronger bond between the horse and the trainer. The horse learns that the trainer can be trusted to introduce new experiences in a safe and controlled manner, reinforcing the connection and mutual respect essential for successful training. This trust makes future training sessions smoother and more efficient, as the horse is more likely to approach new situations with curiosity rather than fear.

By respecting the horse's natural learning process and emotional well-being, habituation not only addresses specific fears but also promotes overall mental and physical health. This approach exemplifies compassionate and effective training methods that prioritize the well-being and happiness of our horses. The initial time investment in habituation ensures that we can progress more quickly and achieve lasting results, ultimately creating a more harmonious and fulfilling relationship between horse and handler.

My hope is that by educating others, we can collectively improve the lives of the horses we cherish, ensuring they lead happier, healthier, and more fulfilling lives. I invite you to share your thoughts, experiences, and questions in the comments below—let's start a conversation and learn from each other. If you found this post helpful, please share it with other equestrians who might benefit from a more compassionate approach to horse training.
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Thank you. This post is well written and does a great job of discussing the difference in these two approaches.

The hardest part of making this shift in consciousness around better, more horse friendly training is unlearning the old ways.

I've shifted to the approaches you are discussing here, now I'm reaching for a conscious connection.

I've studied equine coaching. When we see/experience horses knowing our feelings better than we do, when we get to know someone who does animal communication, when we learn how our subtle energy changes our horses stride and motion, I can't help believing there is a whole new level of connection possible.

Maybe it's time for Centaurship.

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